European Accessibility Act(欧州アクセシビリティ法)概要と電子書籍のアクセシビリティ要件 <修正版>

European Accessibility Act (“EAA”)、日本語では欧州アクセシビリティ法と呼ばれていますが、このEAA がEU指令として6月に公布されました。EU指令なので、すぐに効力を持つものではなく、加盟国の国内法に整備をもって法的効力を持つことになります。

目次

1. 概要と経過

以下のとおり。

2. EAAの内容

 EAAが加盟国に求めている法制化の内容は以下のとおり。罰則付きの法制化を求めています。

  • この指令は、2025年6月28日以降に出される以下の製品とサービスに適用される。
    • ① 製品(第2条第1項):
      • 消費者向けの汎用目的のコンピューター端末及びそのOS
      • ATM、チケット発券機、チェックイン端末等目的のセルフサービス用端末
      • 電子的にコミュニケーションを行う目的の消費者向け端末
      • 視聴覚メディアサービスを利用するための消費者向け端末
      • 電子書籍端末
    • ② サービス(第2条第2項):
      • 電子通信サービス
      • 視聴覚メディアサービス
      • 旅客輸送サービスのウェブサイト、モバイルサービス、電子チケットサービス、運行情報等の旅行情報提供、対話形式のセルフサービス端末
      • 個人向け銀行サービス
      • 電子書籍及びその専用ソフトウェア
      • Eコマースサービス
  • 上についてアクセシビリティの要件を第4条及びANNEXで規定。
  • 製造業者、認定担当者、輸入事業者、販売業者、サービス提供者の義務を第7条から第13条で規定。
  • その他、監視の方法や適合宣言書 (Declaration of Conformity: DoC)など

3. EAAが規定するアクセシビリティ要件の構成

 EAAが規定する具体的なアクセシビリティ要件は法末尾のANNEX IのSection I からSection VI で規定されています(実質、Section I からSection V)。ぞれぞれ以下のとおり。

  • Section I : ハードウェアの全般的なアクセシビリティ要件(第2条第1項)
  • Section II: 製品の全般的なアクセシビリティ要(第2条第2項)
  • Section III: サービスの全般的なアクセシビリティ要(第2条第2項)
  • Section IV : 電子書籍などの上記②にあげられたサービス(第2条第2項規定)に特化したアクセシビリティ要件
  • Section V: 112(EU共通緊急時電話番号)に対応するためのアクセシビリティ要件
  • Section VI : 他の欧州法規との関連

4. EAAのアクセシビリティ要件 – 電子書籍の要件を中心に

 電子書籍に関係するアクセシビリティ要件を軸に転載します。要件の粒度はWCAGレベルですが、EUのという広域を対象に強制力を伴う形で法律として規定されているもの、と考えると、かなり細かく規定していると思います。他の分野の要件も粒度は同じような感じでその内容も窺えるかと。
  
掲載順序は、EAAと一致しませんが、Section IVの電子書籍に特化したアクセシビリティの要件 を掲載し、Section I からSection IIIの全般的なアクセシビリティ要件を掲載します。

4.1 電子書籍に特化したアクセシビリティ要件(Section IV 抜粋)

​ 様々なサービスに特化した要件を掲載するSection IVに掲載されている電子書籍のアクセシビリティ要件は以下のとおりです。アクセシビリティメタデータの提供とDRMによる支援技術によるコンテンツアクセスの妨げを不可としています。アクセシビリティメタデータの重要性はこのエントリでも何度か書いてきたとおり。DRMについても、アクセシビリティの問題は、出版社の制作方法ではなく、サービス提供者がコンテンツに付与するDRMに起因する問題が多くを占めると思われます。EAAがこの2つも要件に入れていることはとても大きいですね。

Section IV

Additional accessibility requirements related to specific services

The provision of services in order to maximise their foreseeable use by persons with disabilities, shall be achieved by including functions, practices, policies and procedures and alterations in the operation of the service targeted to address the needs of persons with disabilities and ensure interoperability with assistive technologies:

(中略)

(f) E-books:

  • (i)ensuring that, when an e-book contains audio in addition to text, it then provides synchronised text and audio;
  • (ii)ensuring that e-book digital files do not prevent assistive technology from operating properly;
  • (iii)ensuring access to the content, the navigation of the file content and layout including dynamic layout, the provision of the structure, flexibility and choice in the presentation of the content;
  • (iv)allowing alternative renditions of the content and its interoperability with a variety of assistive technologies, in such a way that it is perceivable, understandable, operable and robust;
  • (v)making them discoverable by providing information through metadata about their accessibility features;
  • (vi)ensuring that digital rights management measures do not block accessibility features.


​ 以下、上の要件(i) から(vi)の日本語訳です。

  • (i) 電子書籍にテキストに加えて音声が含まれている場合に、テキストと音声を同期させて提供することを保証すること
  • (ii)電子書籍の電子ファイルが支援技術の正常な動作を妨げることのないことを保証すること
  • (iii)コンテンツへのアクセス、ファイルコンテンツ及び動的レイアウトを含むレイアウトのナビゲーション、構造化、コンテンツの表示における柔軟性と選択肢を保証すること
  • (iv)認識可能、理解可能、操作可能、堅牢な方法で、コンテンツの代替レンディション、様々な支援技術との相互運用性を可能にすること
  • (v) アクセシビリティ機能に関するメタデータを通じて情報を提供することにより、電子書籍を発見可能にすること
  • (vi)デジタル著作権管理(DRM)によってアクセシビリティ機能を妨げないことを保証すること。

4.2電子書籍も対象となる全般的なアクセシビリティ要件

電子書籍も対象となる全般的なアクセシビリティ要件です。

4.2.1 製品(電子書籍コンテンツが関係する)の要件 (Section II )

Section II 全文です。

Section II

Accessibility requirements related to products in Article 2(1), except for the self-service terminals referred to in Article 2(1)(b)

In addition to the requirements of Section I, the packaging and instructions of products covered by this Section shall be made accessible, in order to maximise their foreseeable use by persons with disabilities. This means that:

  • (a) the packaging of the product including the information provided in it (e.g. about opening, closing, use, disposal), including, when provided, information about the accessibility characteristics of the product, shall be made accessible; and, when feasible, that accessible information shall be provided on the package;
  • (b) the instructions for the installation and maintenance, storage and disposal of the product not provided on the product itself but made available through other means, such as a website, shall be publicly available when the product is placed on the market and shall comply with the following requirements:
    • (i) be available via more than one sensory channel;
    • (ii) be presented in an understandable way;
    • (iii) be presented to users in ways they can perceive;
    • (iv) be presented in fonts of adequate size and suitable shape, taking into account foreseeable conditions of use, and using sufficient contrast, as well as adjustable spacing between letters, lines and paragraphs;
    • (v) content of instructions shall be made available in text formats that can be used for generating alternative assistive formats to be presented in different ways and via more than one sensory channel; and
    • (vi) instructions containing any non-textual content shall be accompanied by an alternative presentation of that content.

4.2.2 サービス(書店等のコンテンツプロバイダが関係する)の要件 (Section III )

Section III全文です。

Section III

General accessibility requirements related to all services covered by this Directive in accordance with Article 2(2)

The provision of services in order to maximise their foreseeable use by persons with disabilities, shall be achieved by:

  • (a) ensuring the accessibility of the products used in the provision of the service, in accordance with Section I of this Annex and, where applicable, Section II thereof;
  • (b)providing information about the functioning of the service, and where products are used in the provision of the service, its link to these products as well as information about their accessibility characteristics and interoperability with assistive devices and facilities:
    • (i) making the information available via more than one sensory channel;
    • (ii) presenting the information in an understandable way;
    • (iii) presenting the information to users in ways they can perceive;
    • (iv) making the information content available in text formats that can be used to generate alternative assistive formats to be presented in different ways by the users and via more than one sensory channel;
    • (v) presenting in fonts of adequate size and suitable shape, taking into account foreseeable conditions of use and using sufficient contrast, as well as adjustable spacing between letters, lines and paragraphs;
    • (vi) supplementing any non-textual content with an alternative presentation of that content; and
    • (vii) providing electronic information needed in the provision of the service in a consistent and adequate way by making it perceivable, operable, understandable and robust;
  • (c) making websites, including the related online applications, and mobile device-based services, including mobile applications, accessible in a consistent and adequate way by making them perceivable, operable, understandable and robust;
  • (d) where available, support services (help desks, call centres, technical support, relay services and training services) providing information on the accessibility of the service and its compatibility with assistive technologies, in accessible modes of communication.

4.2.3 ハードウェア(電子書籍端末が関係する)の要件 (Section I )

Section I 全文です。 少し長いですが、ハードウェアの要件です。電子書籍関係では、電子書籍端末の要件になります。読み上げ機能も実装するべきといことも書かれていますね(2(o)(ii))。

Section I

General accessibility requirements related to all products covered by this directive in accordance with Article 2(1)

Products must be designed and produced in such a way as to maximise their foreseeable use by persons with disabilities and shall be accompanied where possible in or on the product by accessible information on their functioning and on their accessibility features.

  1. Requirements on the provision of information:
  • (a) the information on the use of the product provided on the product itself (labelling, instructions and warning) shall be:
    • (i)made available via more than one sensory channel;
    • (ii)presented in an understandable way;
    • (iii)presented to users in ways they can perceive;
    • (iv)presented in fonts of adequate size and suitable shape, taking into account foreseeable conditions of use, and using sufficient contrast, as well as adjustable spacing between letters, lines and paragraphs;
  • (b)the instructions for use of a product, where not provided on the product itself but made available through the use of the product or through other means such as a website, including the accessibility functions of the product, how to activate them and their interoperability with assistive solutions shall be publicly available when the product is placed on the market and shall:
    • (i)be made available via more than one sensory channel;
    • (ii)be presented in an understandable way;
    • (iii)be presented to users in ways they can perceive;
    • (iv)be presented in fonts of adequate size and suitable shape, taking into account foreseeable conditions of use and using sufficient contrast, as well as adjustable spacing between letters, lines and paragraphs;
    • (v)with regard to content, be made available in text formats that can be used for generating alternative assistive formats to be presented in different ways and via more than one sensory channel;
    • (vi)be accompanied by an alternative presentation of any non-textual content;
    • (vii)include a description of the user interface of the product (handling, control and feedback, input and output) which is provided in accordance with point 2; the description shall indicate for each of the points in point 2 whether the product provides those features;
    • (viii)include a description of the functionality of the product which is provided by functions aiming to address the needs of persons with disabilities in accordance with point 2; the description shall indicate for each of the points in point 2 whether the product provides those features;
    • (ix)include a description of the software and hardware interfacing of the product with assistive devices; the description shall include a list of those assistive devices which have been tested together with the product.
  1. User interface and functionality design:

The product, including its user interface, shall contain features, elements and functions, that allow persons with disabilities to access, perceive, operate, understand and control the product by ensuring that:

  • (a)when the product provides for communication, including interpersonal communication, operation, information, control and orientation, it shall do so via more than one sensory channel; this shall include providing alternatives to vision, auditory, speech and tactile elements;
  • (b)when the product uses speech it shall provide alternatives to speech and vocal input for communication, operation control and orientation;
  • (c)when the product uses visual elements it shall provide for flexible magnification, brightness and contrast for communication, information and operation, as well as ensure interoperability with programmes and assistive devices to navigate the interface;
  • (d)when the product uses colour to convey information, indicate an action, require a response or identify elements, it shall provide an alternative to colour;
  • (e)when the product uses audible signals to convey information, indicate an action, require a response or identify elements, it shall provide an alternative to audible signals;
  • (f)when the product uses visual elements it shall provide for flexible ways of improving vision clarity;
  • (g)when the product uses audio it shall provide for user control of volume and speed, and enhanced audio features including the reduction of interfering audio signals from surrounding products and audio clarity;
  • (h)when the product requires manual operation and control, it shall provide for sequential control and alternatives to fine motor control, avoiding the need for simultaneous controls for manipulation, and shall use tactile discernible parts;
  • (i)the product shall avoid modes of operation requiring extensive reach and great strength;
  • (j)the product shall avoid triggering photosensitive seizures;
  • (k)the product shall protect the user’s privacy when he or she uses the accessibility features;
  • (l)the product shall provide an alternative to biometrics identification and control;
  • (m)the product shall ensure the consistency of the functionality and shall provide enough, and flexible amounts of, time for interaction;
  • (n)the product shall provide software and hardware for interfacing with the assistive technologies;
  • (o)the product shall comply with the following sector-specific requirements:
    • (i)self-service terminals:
      • —shall provide for text-to-speech technology;
      • —shall allow for the use of personal headsets;
      • —where a timed response is required, shall alert the user via more than one sensory channel;
      • —shall give the possibility to extend the time given;
      • —shall have an adequate contrast and tactilely discernible keys and controls when keys and controls are available;
      • —shall not require an accessibility feature to be activated in order to enable a user who needs the feature to turn it on;
      • —when the product uses audio or audible signals, it shall be compatible with assistive devices and technologies available at Union level, including hearing technologies such as hearing aids, telecoils, cochlear implants and assistive listening devices;
    • (ii)e-readers shall provide for text-to-speech technology;
    • (iii)consumer terminal equipment with interactive computing capability, used for the provision of electronic communications services:
      • —shall, when such products have text capability in addition to voice, provide for the handling of real time text and support high fidelity audio;
      • —shall, when they have video capabilities in addition to or in combination with text and voice, provide for the hand ling of total conversation including synchronised voice, real time text, and video with a resolution enabling sign language communication;
      • —shall ensure effective wireless coupling to hearing technologies;
      • —shall avoid interferences with assistive devices;
    • (iv)consumer terminal equipment with interactive computing capability, used for accessing audio visual media services shall make available to persons with disabilities the accessibility components provided by the audiovisual media service provider, for user access, selection, control, and personalisation and for transmission to assistive devices.

3.Support services:

Where available, support services (help desks, call centres, technical support, relay services and training services) shall provide information on the accessibility of the product and its compatibility with assistive technologies, in accessible modes of communication.

5. 参考

※2019/07/28追記
本エントリで掲載したEAAの電子書籍のアクセシビリティの要件が欧州委員会が提出した時点の法案(つまり、古いバージョン)でした。2019年に公布されたEAAの電子書籍のアクセシビリティの要件と大幅に異なるものでしたので全面的に修正しました。インターネットアーカイブで収集された過去のバージョンで前のバージョンとの違いはご確認いただけます。

European Accessibility Act(欧州アクセシビリティ法)概要と電子書籍のアクセシビリティ要件 <修正版>」への3件のフィードバック

  1. EAAは公共調達にしか関係しないという見解を聞いたことがあるのですが間違いですよね?

    1. 私はEAA の条文に書かれた事以上のことはまだわかないのですが、第2条を読んでも対象範囲が公共調達にとても収まりそうにないのですが・・・(とうよりも公共調達に絡むものがあまりなさそうな気がしませんか)

      1. 第7条以降のCHAPTER IIIにmanufacturer’、service provider、importer、distributorなどの義務が規定されていますが、主語はそれぞれmanufacturer’、service provider、importer、distributorなどですので、公共調達に限定されないようには読めますね(公共調達に限定されるなら規制の対象は政府や公的機関になるはず)。
        EAAを端から端まできっちり読んだわけではないので、私もあやふやなところがあります。その点はご了承ください。

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